Here’s how:

- For , let and use the identity
- For , let and use the identity
- For , let and use the identity

Here’s an example of tangent substitution (click here):

From here simply cancel, integrate and substitute back

Here’s an example of sine substitution (click here):

Here’s an example of secant substitution (click here):

We covered almost all there is to know about substitution. In the next post we will cover inverse trigonometric functions.

Cheers,

Michal